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Dextran sulfate sodium salt, colitis grade (36,000 - 50,000)

Dextran sulfate sodium salt, colitis grade (36,000 - 50,000)

$84.00

Key features and details

  • Induces severe colitis (inflamatory bowel disease)
  • Highest sulfur content – 19%
  • Highest chirality - +104° of specific rotation
  • Lowest pH – 6.2 at 1% solution

SKU: 02160110-CF

Synonyms
DSS, Dextran Sodium Sulfate
CAS Number:
9011-18-1
Molecular Weight:
36,000 - 50,000 Da
MDL Number:
MFCD00081551
Product Description

Dextran sulfate sodium salt, or DSS, is a synthetic sulfated branched polysaccharide derivative of dextran that has multiple uses in biomedical and clinical research (see table below). One important property of DSS is to triggers colitis in mice and rats when administered in drinking water. DSS binds to medium-chain-length fatty acids in the colon and induces intestinal inflammation. MP Premium Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt (MW = 36,000–50,000) from MP Biomedicals is one of the most widely used product based on peer reviewed scientific publications. Over the past 15 years 3,000+ scientific publications have cited the use of our DSS.

1. Question: Can tests be conducted at different time points during DSS modeling to observe the time when the epithelial barrier will be damaged in the early stage of DSS drinking?
Answer: Yes, generally 2 days cause epithelial barrier destruction, you can observe it on Day 3, Day 5, Day7; A pathological examination is suggested to perform.

2. Question: How much water do mice and rats drink every day?
Answer: The daily water intake of mice is 7~10ml/100g body weight/day, and that of rats is 11ml/100g body weight/day.

3. Question: Literature reports on the length of modeling time for AOM/DSS models are not consistent. Are there other models of bowel cancer, like induced by DSS alone?
Answer: There are other models, but each model serves a different purpose. DSS can induce intestinal cancer itself, but the induction time is long. References: Nature Protocols; 2007, 2 (8): 1998-2004

4. Question: Why are the concentrations of DSS used in different batches different?
Answer: DSS is a dextran polymer with average molecular weight. There is a difference in molecular weight between batches, and molecular weight has an influence on enteritis modeling. In general, DSS batches are relatively stable, but there are some large batch differences in some batches. Therefore, it is suggested that customers purchase enough quantity products of the same batch according to their own experimental requirements or conduct pre-experiments before changing batches.

5. Question: No significant weight loss was observed in 3% of DSS mice after 3 days?
Answer: It is normal for some animals to have a slow reaction time and even lose weight on the fifth day after drinking DSS. If no symptoms appear for 7 days, the experiment is repeated and the drinking concentration of DSS is suggested to increase by 0.5~1%.

6. Question: Why are the DSS concentrations different in different labs while the same batch of DSS and the same animal strain are used?
Answer: There are many factors affecting DSS modeling, among which the breeding environment of animals also has a great influence.

7. Question: Is it normal to have intestinal bleeding after DSS modeling?
Answer: Excessive drinking concentration of DSS will lead to intestinal bleeding. Mild intestinal bleeding has no significant effect. Excessive bleeding is suggested to reduce the concentration of DSS.

8. Question: After DSS drinking, weight loss was obvious, but there was no inflammation in HE staining of pathological sections. Why?
Answer: Only when drinking DSS reach a certain threshold can it successfully induce enteritis. If the threshold is not reached, weight loss can occur, but the pathology shows no inflammation.

9. Question: Why are the symptoms of mice in the same cage different?
Answer: There are individual differences between animals. Different animals may drink different amounts of water, and different animals may have different tolerance to DSS.

10. Question: Why do animals with the same concentration of DSS in the second cycle of chronic enteritis model show less obvious symptoms than those in the first cycle?
Answer: DSS is tolerated by animals over a period of time, so symptoms decrease to normal during the second cycle.

11. Question: Can DSS be autoclave?
Answer: No, it will lead to changes in the molecular structure of DSS.

12. Question: DNA was extracted from feces samples of DSS induced mice, and RNA extracted from colon tissues would contain DSS residue, which would inhibit downstream PCR. How to do with RT-PCR experiment?
Answer: Spermine can remove the inhibition of PCR by DSS. References: Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2018 Jan, 144:1-7

13. Question: Is there any difference between SPF rat-induced enteritis and ordinary rat-induced enteritis?
Answer: Under the same conditions, such as the same animal strain, the same age, the same weight, and the same lot, there will be a little difference, which is related to the environment in the gut.

14. Question: How to proceed modeling by gavage?
Answer: Give 2% of DSS solution to the stomach at 10:00 a.m., 14:00 p.m. and 18:00 p.m. respectively every day, 30ml/kg each time, no additional drinking water. Full amount of mixed formula granule feed was given after the last gavage every day, and the feed was taken away at 8:00 a.m. the next day. The modeling cycle time is 9 days. References: A comparative study of dextran sodium sulfate free drinking and quantitative gavage induced acute colitis model in mice, gastroenterology 2009,14 (1), 27-30

15. Question: Is there any difference between Babl/ C and C57 in induction of enteritis?
Answer: There is a difference, C57 background is pure, induced enteritis is more stable. When using Babl/ C mice, preliminary experiments are suggested.

16. Question: What is the difference between DSS modeling and TNBS modeling?
Answer: TNBS: Long course of inflammation. Large individual differences. Low similarity with ulcerative colitis.

17. Question: Can DSS be prepared as mother liquor and then preserved at -20℃ for cell experiments?
Answer: Yes.

18. Question: Acute modeling, should water be changed midway? If yes, usually on Day 7, or Day 5 or Day 6? And then continue to feed water two more days?
Answer: It is recommended to replace DSS aqueous solution in Day 1 or Day 2. The cycle time of acute modeling is 5~7 days.

19. Question: Does replacement mean replacement of new DSS completely? Or add new DSS to the original DSS aqueous solution?
Answer: Replacement means discard the original DSS aqueous solution and replace it with a complete new DSS aqueous solution.

20. Question: Is it common for rats modeling?
Answer: Yes, commonly used strains SD and Wistar.

21. Question: How do the suggested DSS concentration of 2~5% set up? Sometimes the results are obvious when DSS concentration is 2%, but it is not obvious when DSS concentration is 2.5%.
Answer: DSS concentration of 2~5% is the result that we summarized according to the previous literatures. We found that the concentrations of researchers within in this range. When we did it for the first time, it was more than 3%, but it is suggested to do a preliminary experiment to determine the actual induced concentration before the formal experiment.

22. Question: Is it normal that the serum immunoglobulin level increasing after DSS stimulation?
Answer: It’s normal.
23. Question: After AOM+DSS modeling with DSS concentration of 2%, the mortality of male mice was high, how to deal with it?
Answer: Reduce the concentration of DSS.

24. Question: How about gavage? What are the difficult points of gavage? Is it difficult to control the quantity of DSS? Is DSS used more in drinking water or in gavage? (Customer uses mice)
Answer: Gavage is acceptable, but most of the literatures use the method of free drinking. As the operation of gavage is complicated, and it is not as easy as the operation of free drinking. DSS dosage is small for gavage, for details please refer to the procedure of gavage.

25. Question: Can DSS be used in cell experiments?
Answer: Yes, reference: YAP triggers the Wnt/ -catenin signaling pathway and prime enterocyte self-renewal, regeneration and tumorigenesis after DSS-induced injury. Cell death and Disease, 2018(9):153

26. Question: It is reported that the uric acid level in DSS model mice will change. Actually I have done it twice, and got quite obvious models, but uric acid level has no changes. Why?
Answer:First check the pathological section to see if there is any change.

27. Question: How can we quickly judge the success of modeling? If there is blood in the stool, it is too late to give the medicine.
Answer: In the case of a drug therapy trial, based on previous client experience, a pre-trial trial is usually performed to observe and confirm the day that the animal begins to lose weight, and then dose on fixed days after DSS consumption, such as the second or third day after DSS feeding.

28. Question: Is 30mg/g the daily dose? If 18~20mg weight a mice, 7 ml water a day, then DSS concentration should be 8%? It's more than 7 days.
Answer: The threshold of 30mg/g is the total intake rather than the daily intake. The formula is, Total drinking volume (ml) X [DSS (g)/100 ml])/Initial body weight (g).

29. Question: For HE staining, do you use the bowel of about 1cm near the anal end?
Answer: 1~2cm upwards from anus.

30. Question: Are the sulfur contents of each batch of DSS different, which causing different enteritis in mice?
Answer: The experiment results of DSS mold is related to the sulfur content. MP Biomedicals have strict QC release process and there are standards for sulfur content. The product quality is relatively stable between batches.

31. Question: Does TNBS work?
Answer: Yes, but TNBS-induced enteritis is similar to Crohn's disease and has low similarity to ulcerative colitis.

32. Question: Can 1% DSS be used in the chronic model?
Answer: Yes, but it depends on the animal's tolerance.

33. Question: After DSS treatment of colon, extract RNA for quantitative, why there’s no Ct value?
Answer: It may be due to intestinal residual DSS, which inhibit the downstream experiment. Spermine is suggested for DSS removal. In addition, it may also be caused by inhibitors contained in feces, so the template concentration is suggested to be diluted before PCR. If dilution works, it is suggested to optimize the extraction procedure of fecal DNA and remove too inhibitors first.

34. Question: Is there an overview of DSS usage among different molecular weights?
Answer: Other functions of DSS: anticoagulation, lowering blood lipid, anti-virus, inhibiting effect on some enzymes, improving nucleic acid hybridization and cosmetic additives.

35. Question: In PCR detection of colonization, the specific bands are very weak and the non-specific bands are very bright. Why?
Answer: It is recommended to check PCR primers.

36. Question: What are the inhibitors in feces?
Answer: Inhibitors in feces generally include food residues, proteins, polysaccharides, humic acids, bile salts and so on. Inhibitor residues will lead to poor DNA extraction quality and affect downstream experiments.

37. Question: I tried to mold Balbc with 5% concentration and lose 15%-18% body weight while HE staining did not change, why? Which part should I take for a sample?
Answer: It is recommended to take 1~2cm near the anal segment.

38. Question: Can DSS be dissolved by ultrasound and will its molecular structure be destroyed?
Answer: DSS is soluble and can be dissolved without ultrasound. If you have to use ultrasound, that's fine.

39. Question: What does DSS taste like and does it promote drinking in mice? Does DSS cause liver and spleen damage as well as colon damage?
Answer: DSS will not promote drinking water in mice. In addition to causing intestinal damage, DSS accelerated the development of non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Some customers occasionally found liver damage in normal animals, but no damage to the spleen has been reported.

40. Question: What is the mechanism of DSS caused colitis? Is there an official explanation?
Answer: References: Gastroenterology, 2002, 123(1):256-270; J Immunol, 2004, 172(9): 5664-5675; Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2013, 22(12): 1221-1224; Inflammatory bowel disease, 1998, 124-125; J Pharmacol Toxi-colog Methods, 2004, 50(1):81-81

41. Question: During DSS modeling, intraperitoneal injection of drugs (corn oil dilution drugs) appear abdominal adhesion phenomenon, how to solve this problem?
Answer: Celiac adhesion problem is difficult to solve, no experience in this area.

42. Question: Will there be any damage to the cecum of mice after modeling with 3% concentration for 7 days? Why is it that almost all the contents of cecum in my rat model have disappeared, but the morphology of colon, the shape of feces, and the blood in stool are not very serious, and the situation of diarrhea is not very serious at ordinary times.
Answer: Some cecum will appear injury, specific to anatomy HE staining to determine.

43. Question: How do you determine if there is occult blood? Is there a recommended test kit for occult blood?
Answer: Occult blood kit. No recommendation.

44. Question: Do DSS have small bowel polyps?
Answer: Acute does not occur. Long-term administration may occur, but the literature has not been seen.

45. Question: which colon segment is better for western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, or qPCR?
Answer: Depending on animals, different strains appear in different parts of the symptoms in different animals.

46. Question: What are the specific cytokines that induce ulcerative colitis in DSS?
Answer: The expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-interferon, IL-10 and IL-12 increased on the first day of DSS solution administration and gradually increased with the time of administration. The expression of IL-and IL-mrna was increased in acute DSS colitis model. Th2-cell-mediated cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 also play an important role in the chronic DSS colitis model.

47. Question: Does intestinal fibrosis occur in acute ulcerative colitis?
Answer: No, acute enteritis modeling time is short, intestinal repair has not yet appeared.

48. Question: Can DSS induce adult zebrafish by intraperitoneal injection?
Answer: There is no literature on intraperitoneal injection. Some clients feed adult zebrafish directly into DSS aqueous solution.

49. Question: For chronic modeling, in the second round of induction, blood stool on the second and third days. But in the first round with the same concentration, the blood in the stool is delivered on the fifth day. Not like the kind of tolerance that we talked about in this webinar.
Answer: There will be individual differences.

50. Question: Strain of mice, weeks, DSS concentration and feeding conditions were the same in the official experiment and preliminary experiment. The only difference is official experiment chose C57 male mice from other companies due to shortage, and mice weight about 3 g, then mice dying, I'm on the sixth day just in time to stop to DSS, but mice still continue to die. Answer: Different companies have different feeding conditions for mice, and DSS tolerance of animals under different feeding conditions is also different due to the influence of intestinal flora of mice.

51. Question: How many grams of mice are generally selected? Some mice gain weight quickly in the growth stage, but the weight loss is not obvious after DSS solution feeding?
Answer: Literature suggests that mice weight should be not less than 16~18g, and the mice should be selected according to week age. 8~12 weeks is recommended, and the weight is about 22g.

52. Question: Considering different batches of mice, how much weight is appropriate for the C57 mice selected by using DSS to make acute enteritis model?
Answer: Literature suggests that mice weight should be not less than 16~18g, and the mice should be selected according to week age. 8~12 weeks is recommended, and the weight is about 22g.

53. Question: When DSS intake does not reach the threshold, clinical manifestations such as weight loss may occur, but the pathological manifestations may not be obvious. So is the blood in the feces more in sync with the pathology than the ones with weight loss or changes in stool hardness?
Answer: Body weight and DAI index are not related to the intake threshold, which means the blood in the feces is not synchronized with the pathology.

54. Question: After being treated with 2.5% concentration for 7 days, the body weight continued to drop in the first two days, followed by weight gain (lower than the initial weight). The body weight has been repeated without continuous reduction, and the colon length has been significantly reduced. Why?
Answer: Please check whether there is no significant difference in the amount of water the animals drink each day, and check all animals have repeated weight or some animals only. It has to do with individual differences in animals.

55. Question: Does succeed modeling only if ulcerative colitis in mice to achieve visible blood in the feces?
Answer: No, occult blood is also OK.

Application Notes

Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is one of the most common and effective compounds used for inducing ulcerative colitis. The DSS colitis model has also been used extensively to study colon cancer developing in relation to colonic inflammation, such as that occurring in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.


MP Biomedicals offers the gold standard of colitis model creation reagents - colitis grade dextran sulfate sodium salt (36,000-50,000) and colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM).


Because of its high efficacy, MP Biomedical DSS (Figure 1) is one of the most widely used DSS products in the scientific literature. Over the past 15 years more than 8,000 scientific publications have cited the use of MP Biomedicals’ DSS products.

Usage Statement

Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. For more information, please contact our customer service department.

Key Applications

Acute/ Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Model Induction, Chronic Colitis Associated Colon Cancer Model Induction

Specifications
SKU 02160110-CF
Alternate Names DSS, Dextran Sodium Sulfate
Application Notes

Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is one of the most common and effective compounds used for inducing ulcerative colitis. The DSS colitis model has also been used extensively to study colon cancer developing in relation to colonic inflammation, such as that occurring in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis.


MP Biomedicals offers the gold standard of colitis model creation reagents - colitis grade dextran sulfate sodium salt (36,000-50,000) and colonic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM).


Because of its high efficacy, MP Biomedical DSS (Figure 1) is one of the most widely used DSS products in the scientific literature. Over the past 15 years more than 8,000 scientific publications have cited the use of MP Biomedicals’ DSS products.

Base Catalog Number 160110
Boiling Point 310 ° C
CAS # 9011-18-1
Grade Colitis Grade
Melting Point 92 ° C
Molecular Weight 36,000 - 50,000 Da
Personal Protective Equipment Eyeshields, Gloves, respirator filter
pH (1% aqueous solution) 5-7.11
References

Kinchen, J. Structural Remodeling of the Human Colonic Mesenchyme in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cell. 2018, 175, 372-386.


Mahalhal , A. Oral iron exacerbates colitis and influences the intestinal microbiome, PLOS ONE. 2018, 13, e0202460.


Dokoshi, T. Hyaluronidase inhibits reactive adipogenesis and inflammation of colon and skin. JCI Insight. 2018, 3, e12307.


Zhu, H. RNA virus receptor Rig-I monitors gut microbiota and inhibits colitis-associated colorectal cancer. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 2017, 36, 2.


Monticelli, L. IL-33 promotes an innate immune pathway of intestinal tissue protection dependent on amphiregulin–EGFR interactions. PNAS. 2015, 112, 10762-10767.

RTECS Number HH9290000
Solubility 100 mg/mL (decreases with increasing of MW)
Usage Statement Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedical's products are for research or further manufacturing use only, not for direct human use. For more information, please contact our customer service department.
Vapor Pressure 2.6 x 10-4 mm Hg at 25 ° C (Estimated)
Citations