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Urine

URINE

  • Amphetamine
  • Benzodiazepine
  • Barbiturate
  • Buprenorphine
  • Cocaine
  • Cotinine
  • Ketamine
  • Methamphetamine
  • (includes Ecstasy)
  • MDMA (Ecstasy specific)
  • Methadone
  • Opiate
  • Oxycodone
  • Phencyclidine
  • Marijuana (THC)
  • Tramadol
  • Alcohol

 

URINE

MP Rapid DOA/Alcohol Panel Test

  • Immunochromatographic in vitro assay based one step in vitro test.

  • Allow qualitative determination of 22 different drug substances in human urine specimens.

  • This assay provides only a preliminary analytical test result.

  • The optional built-in Adulteration Test is for validation of urine specimen’s integrity.

Available formats

  • Single Drug Test

  • Test Dip Card (individual test combinations up to 14 parameters/card)

  • Test Cassette (individual test combinations up to 10 parameters/cassette)

  • Test Cup (individual test combinations up to 16 parameters/cup)

  • Keyed Cup (individual test combinations up to 16 parameters/cup)

Available parameters

 

Amphetamine

1000 ng/ml of d-amphetamine

Barbiturate

300 ng/ml of secobarbital

Benzodiazepine

300 ng/ml of oxazepam

Buprenorphine

10 ng/ml of Buprenorphine-3-β-d-glucoronide

Cocaine

300 ng/ml of benzoylecgonine

EDDP

100 ng/ml of EDDP

Ketamine

1000 ng/ml of Ketamine

Methadone

300 ng/ml of methadone

Methamphetamine (includes Ecstasy)

1000 ng/ml of (+) methamphetamine

MDMA (Ecstasy specific)

500 ng/ml of MDMA

Opiate*

300 ng/ml of morphine

Opiate II*

2000 ng/ml of morphine

Oxycodone

100 ng/ml of oxycodone

Phencyclidine

25 ng/ml of phencyclidine

Cannabinoid (THC)

50 ng/ml of 11-nor-Δ9-THC-9-COOH

Propoxyphene

300 ng/ml of Norpropoxyphene

Tramadol

200 ng/ml of Tramadol

Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)

1000 ng/ml of Nortriptyline

Methylphenidate

300 ng/ml of methylphenidate

Fentanyl

10 ng/ml of fentanyl

Synthetic Cannabis (K2)

50 ng/ml of JWH-018 pentanoic acid and JWH-73 butanoic acid

Clonazepam(7-ACL)

300 ng/ml of 7-aminoclonazepam

Cotinine

100 ng/ml of cotinine

Alcohol

40 mg/dl (0.04% BAC) of Alcohol



Amphetamines are a class of potent sympathomimetic agents with therapeutic applications. The most common amphetamines are d-amphetamine and d, l-amphetamine. Amphetamines are central nervous stimulants that cause the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine to be released into the brain and body giving users feelings of euphoria, alertness, and increased energy. Chronic abuse of amphetamine leads to tolerance and drug reinforcement effect. Cardiovascular responses to amphetamine include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute responses produce anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations and psychotic behavior. Amphetamine is metabolized by several pathways. In general, acid urine promotes excretion whereas alkaline urine retards it. In 24 hours, approximately 79% of the amphetamine dose is excreted in acid urine and about 45% in alkaline urine. Typically, about 20% is excreted as unchanged amphetamine. Unchanged amphetamine can be detected up to 1 –2 days after use.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Amphetamine

D-amphétamine

1 000

DL-amphétamine

2 000

(±) -MDA

2 500

L-amphétamine

30 000

Tyramine

50 000



Accuracy: The accuracy of the amphetamine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 1000 ng/ml. Three hundred and forty-five (345) urine specimens composed of one hundred thirty-three (133) d-amphetamine positive samples and two hundred twelve (212) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized and presented below:

Positive % agreement: 98.5, Negative % agreement: 100.





Barbiturates are a group of prescription drugs that are frequently abused. They can depress the central nervous system. Acute higher dose induces exhilaration, sedation and respiratory depression. More acute responses produce respiratory collapse and coma. The effects of short-acting barbiturates, such as secobarbital last 3 to 6 hours. The effects of long-acting barbiturates such as phenobarbital last 10 to 20 hours. Short-acting barbiturates normally remain detectable in urine for 4 to 6 days, while long-acting barbiturates can be detected for up to 30 days. Barbiturates are excreted in the urine in unchanged forms, hydroxylated derivatives, carboxylated derivatives and glucuronide conjugates.

 

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Barbiturate

Alphenal

100

Barbital

150

Pentobarbital

150

Phenobarbital

150

Amobarbital

300

Secobarbital

300

Butalbital

5 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the barbiturate test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 300 ng/ml of secobarbital. One hundred thirteen (113) urine specimens composed of sixty-four (64) barbiturate positive samples and forty-nine (49) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 100, Negative % agreement: 100.





Benzodiazepines are a class of widely prescribed central nervous system depressants which have anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects. Chronic abuse can result in addiction and tardive dyskinesia. Acute higher doses lead to drowsiness, dizziness, muscle relaxation, lethargy, coma and possible death. The effects of benzodiazepines use last 4 – 8 hours. Many of the benzodiazepines share a common metabolic route and are excreted as oxazepam and its glucuronide in urine. Oxazepam is detectable in the urine for up to 7 days after drug use.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Benzoxdazepines

Nitrazepam

100

Alprazolam

300

Chloradiazepoxide

300

Clobazam

300

Desmethyldiazepam ( nordiazepam)

300

Estazolam

300

Oxazepam

300

Temazepam

300

Lormetazepam

500

Bromazepam

1 000

Diazepam

1 000

Flunitrazepam

1 000

Lorazepam

1 000

Triazolam

1 000

Clonazepam

2 000

Flurazepam

>100 ug/mL

Accuracy: The accuracy of the benzodiazepine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 300 ng/ml of oxazepam. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred eleven (111) benzodiazepine positive samples and two hundred thirty three (233) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 98, Negative % agreement: 100.





Buprenorphine A derivative of thebaine, is an opioid that has been marketed in the United States as the Schedule V parenteral analgesic Buprenex. In 2003, based on a reevaluation of available evidence regarding the potential for abuse, addiction, and side effect, DEA reclassified buprenorphine from a Schedule V to a Schedule III narcotic. Buprenorphine resembles morphine structurally but has a longer duration of action than morphine and can be administrated sublingually as an analgesic. In October 2002, FDA approved the use of a buprenorphine monotherapy product, Subutex, and a buprenorphine/naloxone combination product, Suboxone, for the treatment of opioid addiction. Subutex and Suboxone are the first narcotic drugs available under the US Drug Act (DATA) of 2003 for the treatment of opiate dependence that can be prescribed in the US in a physician’s workplace. It has also been shown that buprenorphine has abuse potential and may itself cause dependency. In addition, several deaths have been recorded as a result of overdose with intravenously injected buprenorphine in conjunction with other psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines. Buprenorphine is metabolized primarily by n-dealkylation to form glucuronide-buprenorphine and glucuronide-norbuprenorphine.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine

200

Buprenorphine-3-β-glucuronide

10

Accuracy: The accuracy of the buprenorphine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS at a cut-off of 10 ng/ml of buprenorphine-3-β-d-glucuronide. One hundred and one (101) urine specimens composed of forty-nine (49) buprenorphine-3-β-d-glucuronide positive samples and fifty-two (52) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 96, Negative % agreement: 100.





Cocaine Derived from the leaves of coca plant, cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant as well as a local anesthetic. Some of the psychological effects induced by cocaine are euphoria, confidence and a sense of increased energy, accompanied by increased heart rate, dilation of the pupils, fever, tremors and sweating. Continued ingestion of cocaine could induce tolerances and physiological dependency which leads to its abuse. Cocaine is used by smoking, intravenous, intranasal or oral administration and excreted in the urine primarily as benzoylecgonine in a short period. Benzoylecgonine has a biological half-life of 5 – 8 hours, which is much longer than that of cocaine (0.5 – 1.5 hours) and can be generally detected for 12 – 72 hours after cocaine use or exposure.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Cocaine

Benzoylecgonine

300

Cocaine Hydrochloride

300

Accuracy: The accuracy of the cocaine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 300 ng/ml of benzoylecgonine. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred twenty-one (121) benzoylecgonine positive samples and two hundred twenty-three (223) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 99, Negative % agreement: 99.





EDDP 2-Ethylidine-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, is the primary metabolite of methadone. Methadone is a controlled substance and is used for detoxification and maintenance of opiate dependent patients. Patients on methadone maintenance may exhibit methadone (parent) levels that account for 5-50% of the dosage and 3-25% of EDDP in urinary excretion during the first 24 hours. The detection of EDDP is more beneficial than traditional methadone screening, in that EDDP exists only in urine from individuals that ingested methadone. The tampering of specimens by spiking the urine with methadone can be prevented. Secondly, renal clearance of EDDP is not affected by urinary pH, therefore the EDDP test provides a more accurate result of methadone ingestion than the methadone parent screen.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

EDDP

EDDP Perchlorate

100

EMDP

20 000

Venlafaxine

25 000

(±) Methadone

50 000

Doxylamine succinate

100 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the methadone metabolite (EDDP) test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method at a cut-off of 100 ng/mL EDDP. Ninety-nine (99) specimens composed of forty-four (44) positive samples and forty-five (45) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 98, Negative % agreement:100.





Methadone is a synthetic opioid, clinically available. It is used clinically for the treatment of severe pain and in maintenance programs for morphine and heroin addicts. Methadone acts on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems to produce respiratory and circulatory depression. Methadone also produces miosis and increases the tone of smooth muscle in the lower gastrointestinal tract while decreasing the amplitude of contractions. Acute higher doses induce analgesia, sedation, respiratory depression and coma. After methadone administration, the major urinary excretion products are methadone and its metabolites, EDDP and EMDP. Large individual variations in the urine excretion of methadone are output of methadone from 5-22%. Typically, following a 5 mg oral dose, methadone and EDDP account for 5% of the dose in the 24-hour urine. In those individuals on maintenance therapy, methadone may account for 5 to 50% of the dose in the 24-hour urine and EDDP may account for 3 to 25% of the dose.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Methadone

(±) Methadone HCl

300

Metadol

300

Accuracy: The accuracy of the methadone test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 300 ng/ml of methadone. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred eighty-seven (187) methadone positive samples and one hundred fifty-seven (157) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 100, Negative % agreement: 100.





Methamphetamine is the most popular synthetic derivative of the amphetamines. It is a potent sympathomimetic agent with therapeutic applications. Acute large doses lead to enhanced stimulation of the central nervous system and induce euphoria, alertness, reduced appetite, and a sense of increased energy and power. More acute response produces anxiety, paranoia, psychotic behavior, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Methamphetamine is excreted in the urine as amphetamine and oxidized and deaminated derivatives. However, 10-40% of methamphetamine is excreted unchanged. Methamphetamine is generally detectable in the urine for 3 to 5 days after use.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Methamphetamine

(+) Methamphetamine

1 000

(±) Methamphetamine

1 000

(±) MDMA

1 000

(±) MBDB

1 000

(±) MDEA

3 000

R(-) Methamphetamine

5 000

Orphenadrine HCl

50 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the methamphetamine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 1000 ng/ml of (+)methamphetamine. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred twenty-eight (128) methamphetamine positive samples and two hundred sixteen (216) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 98, Negative % agreement: 100.





MDMA Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) is a designer drug first synthesized in 1914 by a German drug company for the treatment of obesity. Those who take the drug frequently report adverse effects, such as increased muscle tension and sweating. MDMA is not clearly a stimulant, although it has, in common with amphetamine drugs, a capacity to increase blood pressure and heart rate. MDMA does produce some perceptual changes in the form of increased sensitivity to light, difficulty in focusing, and blurred vision in some users. Its mechanism of action is thought to be via release of the neurotransmitter serotonin. MDMA may also release dopamine, although the general opinion is that this is a secondary effect of the drug. The most pervasive effect of MDMA, occurring in almost all people who have taken a reasonable dose of the drug, is to produce a clenching of the jaws. The MDMA Ecstasy Test Strip yields a positive result when Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine exceeds 500 ng/ml.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

MDMA

(±) MDMA

500

(±) MDEA

500

(±) MDA

2 000

(±) MBDB

5 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the MDMA test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS at a cut-off of 500 ng/ml of (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Eighty (80) urine specimens with GC/MS confirmed MDMA concentration were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized and presented below:

Positive % agreement: 96, Negative % agreement: 95.





Ketamine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It is used medically as a veterinary and human anesthetic. Certain doses of ketamine can cause dream-like states and hallucinations. In high does, ketamine can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems. Ketamine is metabolized in the liver and excreted through the kidney. The half-life of ketamine in the body is around three hours.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Ketamine

Ketamine

1 000

Norketamine

500

Phencyclidine (PCP)

25 000

Methadone

50 000

Tetrahydrozoline

50 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the ketamine test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 1000 ng/ml of ketamine. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred twenty-seven (127) ketamine positive samples and two hundred seventeen (217) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement: 99, Negative % agreement: 100.





Opiate Opioid analgesics are comprised of a large group of substances that control pain by depressing the central nervous system. Acute high dose used by abusers or addicts can cause depressed coordination, disrupted decision, decreased respiration, hypothermia and coma. Morphine is excreted unmetabolized and is the marker metabolic product of opiates. Morphine and morphine glucuronide are detectable in urine for several days after opiates dose.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Opiate

6-Acetylmorphine

100

Codeine

300

Dihydrocodeine

300

Ethylmorphine

300

Hydromorphone

300

Morphine

300

Morphine-3-β-glucuronide

300

Nalorphine

750

Norcodeine

1 000

Heroin

1 000

Hydrocodone

1 000

Normorphine

2 000

Naloxone

25 000

Naltrexone

100 000

Accuracy: The accuracy of the opiate test was evaluated in comparison to GC/MS method and commercial kits at a cut-off of 300 ng/ml of morphine. Three hundred and forty-four (344) urine specimens composed of one hundred fifty-nine (159) opiate positive samples and one hundred eighty-five (185) negative samples were evaluated in this study. The results are summarized as below:

Positive % agreement:99, Negative % agreement: 99.

Tests

Compounds

Concentration (ng/ml)

Opiate II

Ethylmorphine

1 000

6-Acetylmorphine

2 000

Codeine

2 000

Dihydrocodeine

2 000

Morphine

2 000

Morphine-3-β-glucuronide

2 000

Heroin

5,000